MAŁE PRZYGODY, DUŻY CZAS. O czytaniu i opowiadaniu Ulfa Starka

 Mama Indianka2Mama Indianka 3

fot. Przystanek Twórczość

1 października w niedzielę o godz. 13.00 w Promie Kultury Saska Kępa w ramach cyklu Warszawskiej Sceny Opowieści będzie można zobaczyć rodzinny spektakl Beaty Frankowskiej „Jak mama została Indianką”, inspirowany prozą Ulfa Starka. Beata opowiada o swoim spotkaniu z książkami tego zmarłego w tym roku szwedzkiego pisarza. To jedna z największych przyjemności uprawiania sztuki opowiadania – często się zdarza, że wejście do księgarni staje się początkiem początkiem fascynującej przygody…

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Kiedy w czerwcu tego roku świat obiegła wiadomość, że Ulf Stark nie żyje, poczułam, że odszedł ktoś bliski, niczym dobry kolega z podwórka, z którym kiedyś łaziło się po drzewach, rwało jabłka w sadzie sąsiada, a raz nawet uciekło się z domu i robiło to, na co akurat się miało ochotę, czyli nic. To był ktoś obeznany ze śmiercią; jako mały chłopiec mieszkał w sztokholmskiej dzielnicy Stureby, niedaleko domu starców i sprawnie działającego zakładu pogrzebowego. Ten bezpośredni sposób opowiadania o śmierci, a zwłaszcza o „branży śmierci” (o co chodzi z ta dziurą w ziemi i skrzynką?) jest zresztą charakterystyczny dla dziecięcej (i nie tylko) literatury skandynawskiej. Ale cudowna książka „Czy umiesz gwizdać, Joanno?” to przecież opowieść nie tylko o śmierci, ale i o tym, jak ważne, mocne i karmiące potrafią być relacje między małymi dziećmi i starymi ludźmi.

Kiedy w 2008 roku, czyli dziewięć lat temu, nakładem Zakamarków ukazała się w Polsce trylogia o Ulfie: „Jak mama została Indianką”, „Jak tata pokazał mi Wszechświat” i „Jak tata się z nami bawił”, akurat urodziłam synka. Dlatego czytałam te opowieści, wyobrażając sobie Ulfa jako swojego synka za kilka lat, a siebie jako mamę, która pewnego dnia rzuci to wszystko w cholerę, ten cały domowy kierat, te niedosmażone kotlety, i ucieknie z domu, by przypomnieć sobie o dzikiej naturze i wolności.

To była wtedy dla mnie rewelacja – ta „Mama Indianka”. Nie znałam takiej historii o mamie dla dzieci. Przecież Pippi nie miała mamy; tak jakby Astrid Lindgren musiała uśmiercić matkę, żeby dać dziewczynce pełną wolność i niezależność. Mama Muminka? Tak, ona, choć tak udomowiona, z nieodłączną torebką, miała swoje odejścia, swoją potrzebę samotności, bycia tylko ze sobą. Ale chodziło również o ten szczególny sposób opowiadania małej historii, dziecięcej przygody, w której chłopiec odkrywa, że jego mama jest nie tylko mamą, czyli kimś rozpoznawalnym i całkowicie oswojonym. Pamiętajmy, że, w dużej mierze autobiograficzne, historie Ulfa dzieją się w latach pięćdziesiątych; to nie był wcale wspaniały świat, role kobiece i męskie były wyraźnie nakreślone, mama większość czasu spędzała w domu i w kuchni, a tata w pracy – tata był dentystą i Ulf z podziwem obserwował na jego białym kitlu rozbryzgane kropelki krwi. Tata był niedostępnym bohaterem, który wieczorami zamykał się w swoim gabinecie z radiostacją, a mama była zawsze na wyciągnięcie ręki. Może dlatego dużo trudniej, jak powie później Ulf Stark, było o niej cokolwiek napisać? Bo była tak blisko?

„Tak naprawdę ta książka ma uwolnić myślenie dziecka o swojej mamie Że stać ją na szaleństwo, na rozpuszczenie włosów, skok ze skały do wody i łowienie ryb. Że każda mama ma w sobie piękną tajemnicę mogącą być zaskoczeniem dla jej najbliższych” – powiedział Ulf Stark w wywiadzie udzielonym Krystynie Romanowskiej („Rzeczpospolita”, 12.12.2008), gdy gościł w Polsce. Chcieliśmy zaprosić go na festiwal opowiadania. Nie zdążyliśmy.

Sześć lat później, gdy mój synek Marcin był w wieku Ulfa, zaczęliśmy razem opowiadać tę historię. To była nasza wspólna przygoda – zabawa w Indian, w skradanie się, malowanie krwawych zygzaków na policzkach. Śpiewaliśmy indiańskie piosenki i graliśmy razem na bębnach. Ja w narrację Starka wplatałam małe baśnie indiańskie, a Marcin – indiańskiej okrzyki, które znają wszystkie dzieci na świecie. Ponieważ wszyscy jesteśmy Indianami.

Mały Indianin1 Mama Indianka1

fot. Przystanek Twórczość

Ulf Stark nazywał swoje pisanie „slow-literaturą” – ze względu na szczególny, niespieszny rytm opowiadania, inny rodzaj napięcia narracyjnego, gdy tak naprawdę nic się szczególnego nie wydarza, a jednak wydarza się coś bardzo ważnego, gdy na przykład tata, zapatrzony w gwiazdy, wdeptuje w psią kupę, a Ulf rozpoznaje kosmos w źdźble trawy. Stark określał się również spadkobiercą literatury quasi-terapeutycznej, czyli takiej, „która po drugiej wojnie uwalniała nas od hegemonii pruskiej dyscypliny, takiej, która pokazuje dziecku, jak stawać się niezależnym, cieszyć się życiem, być szczęśliwym z tego, że otaczają go ludzie kochający” („Rzeczpospolita”, 2008).

Ale bohaterowie Ulfa Starka, zwłaszcza z książek dla starszych dzieci („Magiczne tenisówki mojego przyjaciela Percy’ego”; „Mój przyjaciel szejk w Stureby”), doświadczają również ciemnych stron życia, jak przemoc, manipulacja, agresja, szczególna relacja między słabym a silnym. Stark tropi mechanizmy, za sprawą których słaby bohater, gdy tylko zyskuje siłę, sam staje się dyktatorem, podobnie jak Pippi, która według niego: „uosabia marzenie o sile, podstawowe marzenie dzieci pomiatanych i wykorzystywanych. Tylko co by zrobiły te bezbronne dzieci, gdyby zyskały moc? Zapewne bez litości ośmieszyłyby i poniżyły swoich niedawnych oprawców” („Rzeczpospolita”, 2008). Jak daleko jesteśmy tu od infantylnej wizji słodkiego dzieciństwa. I jak wiele tu melancholii, rodem ze Skandynawii, ale też z Janusza Korczaka.

Może dlatego ulubionym, „wewnętrznym” bohaterem Ulfa Starka, takim „dzieckiem w sobie”, jest Karlsson z Dachu – ów tęgi, bardzo zadowolony z siebie jegomość w najlepszych latach. Jest szczęśliwy, robi psikusy i lata. Tylko w kontakcie z nim – twierdzi Stark – mogę być naprawdę wolny jako pisarz. I opowiada o swoim codziennym porannym rytuale, małej medytacji, gdy jeszcze leży w łóżku i wyobraża sobie swoją drogę ze szkoły, kiedy miał siedem lat: „Jak mijam kolejne domy, skręcam w kolejne ulice, przyglądam się psom, jak wchodzę do domu i co robi mój brat…” (z rozmowy z Agatą Okońską, „Tygodnik Powszechny”, 23.08.2015). Swoją wędrówkę kończy w toalecie, wspina się na palce, żeby spojrzeć w swoją siedmioletnią twarz. Wtedy powracają dawne zapachy, dźwięki, smaki. Można nawet sprawdzić, co było w lodówce…

W 2015 roku Ulf Stark myślał o napisaniu opowieści o dzieciach uchodźcach, które nieustanie widywał na ulicach Sztokholmu. Często samotne, bez rodziców, śpiące na ulicach. To go bardzo poruszało. Chyba nie zdążył (a może jednak?). Ale została „Mama Indianka”. I możemy podążyć jej śladem. Jeszcze raz. Żeby zobaczyć w lustrze swoją siedmioletnią twarz.

 WScenaO_plakat_MamaIndianka_podgladmain_5_46

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